Fritjof Capra's model suggest there are three aspects to any complex system:
- matter (material structure)
- process (continual process of embodiment)
- form (pattern of organisation)
For example, a human call has cell components (matter), chemical reactions over time (process) and the network of connections (form). Capra argues that while matter and process are reasonably well understood aspects of complex systems, form is largely ignored. He also asserts that humans assign and share a fourth element, meaning, to both real and imagined world.
Fritjof Capra's website can be found at www.fritjofcapra.net.